White Papers

Antimicrobial Testing on Copper versus Copper AlloysCopper and copper alloys are known as metals with antimicrobial properties. Esco conducted the antimicrobial test on pure copper and some copper alloys in a microbiology laboratory. Six microorganisms were tested against one type of pure copper and seven types of copper alloy. In this study, it is found that pure copper is more effective than copper alloy in rendering microorganisms inactive.



Effectiveness of ULPA Filter in Removing Air Contaminants from the CO2 Incubator ChamberFor years, CO2 incubators are proved to be a reliable and user-friendly equipment for researchers and laboratory operators. They are widely used for applications such as cell culturing, biochemical studies, pharmaceutical and food processing. Laboratory incubators are used to grow and maintain cell cultures and normally come in a variety of sizes and types. On the other hand, CO2 incubators work to control three important variables related to the tissue and cell culturing mammalian environment and these are CO2 level, temperature and relative humidity (RH).

A good controlled environment is very important in supporting cell growth. For many years, contaminants have become a serious issue in terms of "cleanliness" with CO2 incubators. Microbial contamination caused by bacteria, bacterial spores, viruses, mycetozoa, yeast or other microorganisms often cause major risks to cell culture experiments.



Antimicrobial Effectiveness Evaluation of Isocide vs. Stainless SteelUndesirable bioburdens can cause contamination on equipment and facilities used by laboratory professionals, where it is critical for them to keep everything clean and free from any health hazard. The bioburdens are present on many surfaces and it is hard to control their numbers effectively.

Some laboratory and cleanroom products are equipped with organism growth control mechanisms. One such mechanism is Isocide™ powder coating.

Two tests, based on JIS and ASTM standards, were performed to evaluate antimicrobial effectiveness of this powder coating. Stainless steel plate was used for this test as comparison. The test results showed that bacteria, yeast and mold that came into contact with Isocide™ coated surfaces were inhibited and effectively eliminated.



Air Cleanliness Test on CO2 IncubatorOne of the most critical aspects within an aseptic manufacturing facility is the amount of viable microorganism and non-viable particulates within a controlled area. Good environment control to ensure contaminant-free chamber is also important to support the cell growth. To control the chamber air cleanliness, Esco CO2 incubators are equipped with SteriSafe™ ULPA filtration system.

The SteriSafe™ system utilizes a fan to re-circulate air inside the incubator through an ULPA filter to capture the airborne contaminants. The objective of this system is to achieve biosafety cabinet comparable cleanliness level of at least ISO Class 5 inside the incubator chamber, which was investigated on this study.



A New Microbiological Cross Contamination Test on CelCulture® CO2 IncubatorCross contamination is the term used to describe bacterial transfer from source into high risk. Cross contamination occurs when one object becomes contaminated by either direct or indirect contact with another object which is already contaminated.

CO2 incubators have become acceptable, reliable equipment given the growth in cell culture research and the ability of incubators to grow cells in vitro. But, on the flip side of this benefit, is the constant threat of contamination to the cell culture environment.

The aim of this study was to evaluate cross contamination at inner chamber of CO2 incubator. In this study, the test was performed with both methods adopted from NSF/ANSI 49:2008 using nebulizer and another test method performed using contaminated plates.